Malignant tumors of the oral cavity constitute about 6% of all oncological diseases in general. According to the histological structure (the type of cells forming a tumor) the following types are distinguished:
- Tumor from epithelium cells – cancer
- Swelling of connective tissue cells – sarcoma
Each of the types includes several varieties.
There are also several groups of precancerous diseases separately. Oral precancerous diseases are divided into:
- Obvious – with a high frequency of malignancy. These include Bowen’s disease, warped precocious, limited hyperkeratosis, Manganotti’s heilitis.
- Optional – with a lower frequency of malignancy. This group includes verrucose form of leukoplakia, papillomatosis, erosive and hyperkeratotic forms of systemic lupus erythematosus and red flat lupus erythematosus, postradial stomatitis and postradial heilitis, keratooacantoma.
Among malignant tumors of the oral cavity, cancer is most commonly found.
Oral cancer, in turn, is divided as follows:
- Intraepithelial carcinoma (Carcinoma in situ, cancer in situ) is characterized by the absence of germination into the basal membrane, despite the malignancy of the tumor.
- Flat cell cancer is the most frequently encountered.
Reasons and risk factors
The reasons for the development of malignant neoplasm of the oral cavity can be roughly divided into local and general risk factors.
Common factors include age, the presence of various hazards in the anamnesis (exposure to radiation, etc.), hereditary predisposition.
Local factors are local factors that affect the oral cavity. These factors include – chewing nasal (tobacco and drug mixtures), smoking, the habit of using scalding hot drinks inside, chronic trauma to mucous membranes (tooth chips, deformed dentures), as well as the presence of precancerous diseases. Separately, we should highlight the risk factor of disease detection at late stages – the lack of annual examinations of the dentist.
It is the neglect of preventive visits to the doctor that prevents the diagnosis of cancer at early, treatable stages and detection and treatment.
Oral cancer is usually classified by localization. This is due to the fact that the area under discussion includes a large number of anatomical formations with a significant diversity.
When choosing the treatment tactics and type of operation, the position of the tumor in the mouth plays an important role. Different parts of the oral cavity are differently innervated, differently supplied with blood, have different functional importance, so the prospects for treatment of absolutely identical tumors located in different places may differ significantly.
In terms of localization, oral cancer is usually subdivided into:
- Cheek cancer
- Oral cavity bottom cancer
- Language Cancer
- Cancer in the alveolar process area
- Cancer of the sky
- Gum cancer